Hombo Batu di Pulau Nias

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Lompat Batu Nias.

KABUPATEN Nias Selatan selain memiliki alam yang indah, andalan pariwisata dari segi budayanya juga memikat. Sebut saja Tari Perang atau rumah adatnya yang eksotis. Satu hal lagi yang tak boleh dilewatkan jika mengunjungi Nias, ialah Hombo Batu atau Fahombo, tradisi lompat batu Nias yang dilakukan oleh pemuda yang mengenakan pakaian adat Nias dan melompati susunan batu.

Dalam tradisi Nias, setiap lelaki yang akan terlibat dalam peperangan diwajibkan melakukan ritual lompat batu Nias ini. Batu yang harus dilompati berupa bangunan tugu yang memiliki tinggi tak kurang dua meter dengan lebar 90 cm dan panjang 60 cm.

Untuk dapat melewati batu setinggi 2 meter tersebut dibutuhkan keahlian khusus dan kesehatan fisik yang terjaga. Keberhasilan dari tradisi hombo batu ini diukur tidak hanya dari bagaimana ia dapat melompati batu tersebut, tetapi juga dilihat dari teknik yang ia gunakan ketika mendarat. Karena sedikit saja melakukan kesalahan pada saat mendarat, tidak jarang pelompat tersebut mengalami cedera otot bahkan patah tulang.

Maka tidak heran jika setelah anak laki-laki mereka sanggup melewati ritual ini, seringkali diadakan acara syukuran sederhana dengan menyembelih ayam atau hewan lainnya. Bahkan bagi para pemuda yang melompat batu dengan sempurna untuk pertama kalinya, biasanya dijamu oleh para tetua desa.

Tradisi lompat batu Nias ini dikenal memiliki tingkat kesulitan yang tinggi. Masyarakat Nias menggunakan tradisi ini sebagai tolak ukur kematangan umur seseorang, terutama lelaki yang telah cukup umur. Jika seorang pemuda tersebut berhasil melewati batu ini dengan sempurna, maka ia telah dianggap matang secara fisik dan hak beserta kewajiban sosialnya sebagai seorang yang telah matang dan sudah bisa dijalankan, baik dalam fungsi sosial maupun dalam kehidupan pribadinya.

Awalnya, tadisi lompat batu merupakan kebutuhan dan persiapan untuk mempertahankan diri dan membela keamanan wilayah bagi pemuda yang akan ditugaskan. Konflik yang sering terjadi antar wilayah telah memaksa seseorang untuk terlibat ke dalam peperangan.

Sehingga ketika ada peperangan yang terjadi, pemuda-pemuda desa tersebut telah terlatih dan tangkas baik dalam menyerang dan menyelamatkan diri.

Sisa-sisa tradisi di Nias ini sekarang sudah menjadi atraksi pariwisata yang unik. Berbagai aksi dan gaya para pemuda ketika sedang melompati batu tersebut telah menjadi tontonan yang spektakuler. Dari pertunjukan ini pula tradisi Nias dikenal luas oleh suku bangsa lainnya.

Salah satu kawasan yang memanfaarkan tradisi ini sebagai komoditi wisata adalah Desa Bawo Mataluo. Selain untuk pariwisata tradisi lompat batu di desa tersebut digunakan sebagai ritus budaya untuk menentukan seorang pemuda dapat diakui sebagai lelaki pemberani dan memenuhi syarat untuk menikah.

Agar bisa mencapai lokasi, para pengunjung dapat melalui perjalanan menggunakan jalur udara dari Medan menuju Pulau Nias (Gunung Sitoli) dengan waktu tempuh yang mencapai satu jam. Selain perjalanan udara, untuk mencapai Pulau Nias dapat juga ditempuh melalui perjalanan laut dengan menggunakan kapal ferry dari Sibolga ke Pulau Nias dengan waktu tempuh lebih kurang 10 jam.

Sambil menikmati pemandangan dari Gunung Sitoli, wisatawan masih membutuhkan waktu sekitar tiga jam perjalanan untuk bisa sampai ke Teluk Dalam baik dengan kendaraan roda empat atau roda dua.

Dengan pakaian adatnya yang khas dan perawakan para pemuda Nias membuat para pengunjung akan merasa kagum terlebih dengan suasana wilayahnya yang sangat menarik dan kaya akan budaya. Sebetulnya Tradisi lompat batu nias ini dapat menjadi semacam pemandangan pentas motorik yang sangat ritus dan memacu adrenalin penonton.

Untuk dapat melihat langsung para pemuda Nias melakukan atraksi tersebut, para wisatawan biasanya diminta untuk mengeluarkan sekitar Rp 50.000, 00. Memang pada satu sisi, jika dilihat dari tingkat kesulitannya yang tinggi, orang Nias wajar bila meminta tarif yang tinggi pula. Tetapi pada satu sisi, ketika budaya sudah memiliki nilai komersil, dampaknya nilai-nilai yang terdapat dari keagungan budaya tersebut perlahan-lahan luntur.

Jalan lain yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan adanya perbaikan tatakelola yang baik sehingga “atraksi” lompat batu tidak langsung menjadi sebuah komoditi yang seolah murah karena pemangku budayanya langsung meminta imbalan. (wacananusantara.org)

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