Info Umum

5Kekayaan Wisata Indonesia

 

INDONESIA memiliki kawasan terumbu karang terkaya di dunia dengan lebih dari 18% terumbu karang dunia, serta lebih dari 3.000 spesies ikan, 590 jenis karang batu, 2.500 jenis moluska, dan 1.500 jenis udang-udangan. Kekayaan biota laut tersebut menciptakan sekitar 600 titik selam yang tersebar dari Sabang hingga Merauke.

Raja Ampat di Provinsi Papua Barat adalah taman laut terbesar di Indonesia yang memiliki beraneka ragam biota laut dan dikenal sebagai lokasi selam scuba yang baik karena memiliki daya pandang yang mencapai hingga 30 meter pada siang hari.

Hasil riset lembaga Konservasi Internasional pada tahun 2001 dan 2002 menemukan setidaknya 1.300 spesies ikan, 600 jenis terumbu karang dan 700 jenis kerang di kawasan Raja Ampat.[26] Bunaken yang terletak di Sulawesi Utara memiliki 25 titik selam dengan kedalaman hingga 1.556 meter.[29] Hampir 70% spesies ikan di Pasifik Barat dapat ditemukan di Taman Nasional ini.

Terumbu karang di taman nasional ini disebut tujuh kali lebih bervariasi dibandingkan dengan Hawaii.[30] Beberapa lokasi lain yang terkenal untuk penyelaman antara lain: Wakatobi, Nusa Penida, Karimunjawa, Derawan dan Kepulauan Seribu.

Taman Nasional

Terdapat 50 taman nasional di Indonesia, 6 di antaranya termasuk dalam Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Taman Nasional Lorentz di Papua memiliki sekitar 42 spesies mamalia yang sebagian besar hewan langka. Mamalia yang ada di kawasan ini antara lain: kangguru pohon, landak irian, tikus air, walabi, dan kuskus.

Taman nasional ini memiliki lebih dari 1.000 spesies ikan, di antaranya adalah ikan koloso. Di taman ini terdapat salju abadi yang berada di puncak Gunung Jayawijaya. Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon merupakan taman nasional tertua di Indonesia yang dikenal karena hewan Badak jawa bercula satu yang populasinya semakin menipis.

Indonesia memiliki lebih dari 400 gunung berapi dan 130 di antaranya termasuk gunung berapi aktif. Gunung Bromo di Provinsi Jawa Timur dikenal sebagai lokasi wisata pegunungan untuk melihat matahari terbit maupun penunggangan kuda.

Pada bulan-bulan tertentu, terdapat upacara kebudayaan Yadnya Kasada yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat Gunung Bromo. Lokasi wisata lain yang terkenal di daerah Jawa Barat adalah Gunung Tangkuban Parahu yang terletak di Subang. Gunung aktif ini menghasilkan mata air panas yang terletak di kaki gunung yang dikenal dengan nama Ciater dan sering dimanfaatkan untuk spa serta terapi pengobatan.

Keanekaragaman flora dan fauna yang ada di seluruh nusantara menjadikan Indonesia cocok untuk pengembangan agrowisata. Kebun Raya Bogor yang terletak di Bogor merupakan lokasi agrowisata populer yang telah berdiri sejak abad 19 dan merupakan yang tertua di Asia dengan koleksi tumbuhan tropis terlengkap di dunia.

Hingga Maret 2010, Kebun Raya Bogor memiliki koleksi 3.397 spesies jenis koleksi umum, 550 spesies tumbuhan anggrek, serta 350 tumbuhan non-anggrek yang berada di rumah kaca.[40] Taman Wisata

Wisata belanja

Wisata belanja di Indonesia dibagi menjadi dua jenis: pusat perbelanjaan tradisional dengan proses tawar-menawar antara pembeli dan penjual dan pusat perbelanjaan modern. Pasar tradisional umumnya menjual barang-barang kebutuhan sehari-hari yang berlokasi dalam satu gedung atau jalan tertentu.

Beberapa daerah dengan relief sungai-sungai panjang memiliki pasar terapung seperti Pasar Terapung Muara Kuin di Sungai Barito, Banjarmasin dan Pasar Terapung Lok Baintan di Banjar, namun adapula yang khusus menjual barang-barang seni atau benda khas setempat seperti Pasar Sukawati di Gianyar yang menjual berbagai kerajinan tangan dan barang seni khas Bali, Pasar Klewer di Solo yang menjual kain – kain batik, Kotagede dengan hasil kerajinan perak, dan kawasan Malioboro di Yogyakarta yang menjajakan kerajinan khas Yogya.

Pusat perbelanjaan modern dapat ditemukan di kota-kota metropolitan terutama yang terletak di Pulau Jawa seperti Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung dan Semarang. Kebanyakan pusat perbelanjaan modern dapat ditemukan di kota Jakarta yang memiliki lebih dari 170 pusat perbelanjaan.

Jakarta merupakan kota dengan jumlah pusat perbelanjaan terbanyak di dunia. Pusat perbelanjaan tertua yang pernah dibangun di Jakarta yaitu Pasar Baru yang dibangun pada tahun 1820. Pusat perbelanjaan di Jakarta, Semarang, dan Surabaya umumnya mengadakan diskon besar pada masa ulang tahun kota untuk meningkatkan daya tarik wisata belanja. Jakarta secara rutin mengadakan pesta diskon Festival Jakarta Great Sale, Semarang dengan nama Semarang Great Sale, sementara Surabaya mengadakan Surabaya Shopping Festival.

Wisata budaya

Berdasarkan data sensus 2010, Indonesia terdiri dari 1.128 suku bangsa. Keberagaman suku bangsa tersebut mengakibatkan keberagaman hasil budaya seperti jenis tarian, alat musik, dan adat istiadat di Indonesia. Beberapa pagelaran tari yang terkenal di dunia internasional misalnya Sendratari Ramayana yang menceritakan tentang perjalanan Rama dan dipentaskan di kompleks Candi Prambanan. Desa Wisata Batubulan yang terletak di Sukawati, Gianyar merupakan desa yang sering dikunjungi untuk pentas Tari Barongan, Tari Kecak dan Tari Legong.

Wisata keagamaan

Sejarah mencatat bahwa agama Hindu dan Buddha pernah masuk dan memengaruhi kehidupan spiritual di Indonesia dengan adanya peninggalan sejarah seperti candi dan prasasti di beberapa lokasi. Jejak-jejak peninggalan agama Buddha yang terbesar adalah Candi Borobudur yang terletak di Magelang dan merupakan candi Buddha terbesar di dunia dan masuk dalam daftar Warisan Budaya Dunia UNESCO pada tahun 1991.

Pada abad ke-13 hingga ke-16 Islam masuk ke nusantara menggantikan era kerajaan Hindu-Buddha. Pada masa ini, banyak ditemukan masjid yang merupakan akulturasi kebudayaan antara Hindu-Buddha-Jawa dengan agama Islam seperti terlihat pada Masjid Agung Demak dan Masjid Menara Kudus.

 

Salam Wisata

 

Truly Indonesia

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